The 35-year-old spent three years at Kenilworth Road from May 2015, playing 111 games and scoring four goals, before moving to the Lamex Stadium in the summer of 2018.
After making 154 appearances for Boro, he was released in the summer and has now been signed by ex-Stevenage boss Darren Sarll who was appointed Cards manager earlier this year.
Describing his new addition to the club website, Sarll said: “Scott is the balance that we need in terms of having lots of athleticism, lots of younger players of an age where they still need to improve and need support.
"Scott is those things – experience, a brilliant character.
"I was quoted last year saying that I felt the squad lacked some toughness and resilience, some robustness and character.
"Scott is exactly that. He is an experienced and older player and, to me, the dressing room is only as good as the senior players.
“He will be a huge influence both on and off the pitch, whether fit or injured.
"He has a huge role to play in the character and feel of the group.
"He still has so many qualities as a player to give: a very good defender, organiser of a team, and he fits along with our other signings to make the team more of an EFL-type side.”
Cuthbert will link up with another former Luton defender, Luke Wilkinson, who penned a two year deal at Woking following the expiration of his contract at fellow National League side Yeovil Town.
The 31-year-old moved to Kenilworth Road in the summer of 2014, making 72 appearances and scoring seven goals for Town, before also moving to Stevenage in January 2016.
He then joined Yeovil in July 2019 and made 85 outings in three years for the Glovers, before moving to the Kingfield Stadium to link up with Sarll once more.